NKOS logo

Networked Knowledge Organization

Announcement | NKOS Application Profile | KOS Registries and Standards | Related Publications

| NKOS Workshops | Archived early efforts | Metadata Standards Updates (2020s)

NKOS is devoted to the discussion of the functional and data model for enabling knowledge organization systems/services (KOS), such as classification systems, thesauri, gazetteers, and ontologies, as networked interactive information services to support the description and retrieval of diverse information resources through the Internet.

Knowledge Organization Systems/Services (KOS) model the underlying semantic structure of a domain. Embodied as Web-based services, they can facilitate resource discovery and retrieval. They act as semantic road maps and make possible a common orientation by indexers and future users (whether human or machine). -- Douglas Tudhope, Traugott Koch (2004). New Applications of Knowledge Organization Systems: introduction to a special issue.

URL: https://nkos.dublincore.org/ [Previous URL: https://nkos.slis.kent.edu]
Last updated: 2024-07-16


1. NKOS 2024 has two events. One (Part 2) will be held in DCMI 2024 Toronto, Oct.20-23. The program is released. Another one (Part 1) was held in ISKO 2024, the 18th ISKO Conference, March 20-22, Wuhan, China. The theme of the NKOS 2024 workshops is:

2. NKOS 2023 Workshop was held on Nov. 9, 2023, as part of DCMI 2023, Daegu, South Korea, and virtual.

3. Recent NKOS Research, a Special Issue of The Electronic Library (TEL) Volume 41 Issue 6, 2023.

4. NKOS 2022 Workshop was held as part of DCMI 2022, October 6-7, 2022, virtual

5. NKOS-eu 2022 workshop, in collaboration with ISKO Italy, June 23rd, 2022, as part of JCDL 2022 Conference, virtual

6. News: NKOS website moves to dublincore.org.

7. Special Issue of Knowledge Organization (Vol.48, No. 3 and No. 4, 2021) for the Best papers from NKOS Consolidated Workshop 2020
- Guest Editors: Joseph Busch and Joe Tennis

NKOS Dublin Core Application Profile (NKOS AP)

NKOS Dublin Core Application Profile (version 0.2) 2015

The DCMI/NKOS Task Group targets to develop a Dublin Core Application Profile for KOS resources based on the work the NKOS group members have already done during the last decade. The application profile will be further tested by professionals and researchers.


KOS Registries, Terminology Services, and Standard Development


ISO 25964. Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies.
Part 1: Thesauri for information retrieval (Published December 2011)
Part 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies (Published March 2013)

Related Publications

Special Issues

Proceedings online

Other publications

NKOS Workshops and Special Meetings

Consolidated NKOS Workshops

NKOS Workshops at DCMI International Conferences on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications

US NKOS Workshops (held in USA; 1997- 2012, see also above, held at DCMI)

European NKOS Workshops (2000 - ) at Github https://nkos-eu.github.io/

ASIS&T Annual Meeting -- NKOS sessions

"If You Build It, Will They Come? – A Discussion of Use Cases and Barriers of Using the Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) Available as Linked Open Data (LOD)" (abstract) -- Panel presentations at ASIS&T 2015

  1. Marcia Lei Zeng (Kent State University): New Functions of LOD KOS Beyond “Value Vocabularies” and Barriers in the Current Practices of Using Them (ppt)
  2. Marjorie Hlava (Access Innovations, Albuquerque): Implementing Linked Open Data in a Controlled Vocabulary (ppt)
  3. Joseph A. Busch (Taxonomy Strategies, Washington, DC): What’s Missing from SKOS, Why is It Missing, and What Should be Done About It? (ppt)
  4. Olga Buchel (Counting Opinions, Canada): Improving Usability of Geospatial LOD KOS with Map-based Visualizations (ppt)
  5. Maja Žumer (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) moderator

"Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) as Linked Data Services" (abstract) -- Panel presentations at ASIS&T 2014

  1. Joseph A Busch& Vivian Bliss (Taxonomy Strategies): Changing from a Hierarchical Classification to a Linked Data Standard: American Physical Society (APS) Taxonomy Case Study (ppt)
  2. Imma Subirats (FAO of UN) & Marcia Lei Zeng (Kent State University): Using KOS as the Connectors of Linked Datasets (ppt)
  3. Marjorie Hlava (Access Innovations): How about Linked data and triples - making them a reality (ppt)

"Maximizing the Usage of Value Vocabularies in the Linked Data Ecosystem" (abstract) -- Panel presentations at ASIS&T 2013

  1. Ed O’Neill & Jeff Mixter, (OCLC Research): (1) The Case for Faceting (2) FAST Linked Data Mechanics (ppt)
  2. Marcia Lei Zeng (Kent State University) & Maja Zumer (University of Ljubljana): Managing and Sharing KOS
    through Registries and RDFa/microdata Using a Metadata Application Profile
  3. Xia Lin (Drexel University): Meaningful Concept Displays for KOS-­-based Searching and Browsing
  4. [Joseph A Busch (Taxonomy Strategies)]::Evaluating Taxonomies (recorded ppt)

"Semantic Metadata as Linked Data Building Blocks" (abstract) -- Panel presentations at ASIS&T 2012
Joseph Busch, [Marjorie Hlava], Marcia Zeng and [Gail Hodge]

  1. Joseph Busch: Semantic Metadata, A Tale of Two Types of Vocabularies (ppt)
  2. Marcia Lei Zeng: The state of KOS in the Linked Data movement - The publishing, management, and interoperating of KOS for the Semantic Web. (ppt)

"Linked Data --Enabling Standards and Other Approaches" -- Panel presentations at ASIS&T- 2010

  1. Gail Hodge: Introduction. (ppt)
  2. Sam Oh: Linked Data and Identifiers. (ISO TC46/SC9 (Identification and Description activities updates; the second edition of Web Ontology Language (OWL2)) (ppt)
  3. Jon Phipps: SKOS: A W3C Recommendation. (ppt)
  4. Ed Summers: RDFa -- Linked Data on the Web We Have. (external link)
  5. Mark Needleman and Jody DeRidder: NISO I2 (Institutional Identifiers) (ppt)
  6. Marcia Zeng, Jon Phipps, and Ed Summers: Introducing W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group (LLD XG) (ppt)

"Knowledge Organization: Evaluating Foundation and Function in the Information Ecosystem" -- Panel presentations at ASIS- 2010

  1. Marjorie Hlava: Introduction to the panel. (ppt)
  2. Hollie White: Framing NKOS Evaluation: HIVE’s Approach. (ppt)
  3. Denise A. D. Bedford: International Development Thesaurus – Moving Collaboration and Assessment Upstream (ppt)
  4. Gail Hodge, Information International Associates (IIa): Evaluating NKOS in the EPA Enterprise: Supporting Real Ecosystems (ppt)

Web Service-based Applications: Optimizing Indexing, Searching, and Terminology Services, ASIST 2008 (Link to program description).

  1. Rebecca Guenther. A Registry for controlled vocabularies at the Library of Congress (ppt)
  2. Diane Vizine-Goetz. OCLC Terminology Services beta: Architecture & Standards (link)
  3. Dongming Zhang. Developing a Webservice-based MeSH indexing Tool for Health Science Repository System (ppt)

Other NKOS Workshops and Sessions

International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) conferences

International UDC Seminars

Archived early efforts

(See also NKOS Dublin Core Application Profile)

NKOS Registry

Taxonomy of Knowledge Organization Systems

Vocabulary Mark-up Language (Voc-ML)

Vocabulary ML: Metacode strawman DTD draft (developed in 2000, superseded by other activities such as SKOS and some of the ISO standards work on terminologies)

Research projects for terminlogy services (early pioneers)

NKOS Listserv

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

Questions and suggestions should be sent to mzeng at kent dot edu